Investing Guide 101

Unlocking the Secrets of Angel Investing

A Comprehensive Guide to Becoming an Angel Investor

Angel Investing Guide Illustration
Angel Investors

1. Introduction to Angel Investing

1.1. What Is an Angel Investor?

An angel investor is a wealthy individual who provides financial backing to startups and entrepreneurs in exchange for equity in their company. Unlike venture capital or syndicate investing, which rely on investment funds, angel investors use their own personal funds to support these ventures.

Typically, startup founders seek out angel investors through personal connections such as friends and family, as this can often be a more accessible avenue for securing funding compared to traditional methods such as small business loans.

Angel investors can offer financing to startups in a variety of ways, such as a one-time investment or ongoing support. In addition to financial backing, angel investors can also provide valuable industry expertise and connections, which can often be just as important for a startup’s growth as the capital itself.

This network of support can help to foster new opportunities, provide guidance, and assist with navigating challenges that arise during the early stages of a startup’s development. Investing in early-stage startups carries a significant amount of risk, which is why angel investors typically allocate only a small portion of their portfolio to these ventures, typically around 10%.

However, they do expect high returns on their investment if it is successful. The amount of money that angel investors provide, known as angel financing, can vary greatly but is typically estimated to fall between $25,000 and $500,000.

Compared to small business lenders, angel investors may offer more favorable terms, as they are drawn to the passion and ambition of the entrepreneur and can recognize the potential of the idea based on their industry experience. Angel investors are commonly referred to as informal investors, angel funders, private investors, seed investors, or business angels.

Besides personal funds, angel investors may sometimes use other instruments and securities to support startup growth, such as debt financing, SAFE notes, and so on.

1.2. Types of Angel Investors and Their Roles

Angel investors play a vital role in the growth and development of startups. They come in various forms, each with their own distinct investment strategies and preferences. They can be classified based on factors such as their relationship with the entrepreneur, level of industry knowledge, investment amount, level of involvement in the startup’s decision-making and growth, types of funding for startups they offer, and whether they work independently or as part of a group.

Here are five general types of angel investors:

Family Angel Investor

The “Family Angel Investor” is an individual who knows the entrepreneur personally or is related to them and wants to support their idea. The amount of money they can provide and their knowledge varies and is often limited, but they are usually the first source of funding for the startup.

They can offer great support and encouragement to the entrepreneur during the challenging initial stages of bringing their idea to fruition. However, one potentially huge drawback is that their decision making is not based on formal analysis and projections of growth, but rather on emotions or personal reasons.

The Passive Angel Investor

The Passive Angel Investor is a high-net-worth individual who is able to provide a significant amount of capital, but may prefer to take a more hands-off approach. They do not want to be involved in the day-to-day operations or decision-making of the venture.

They often entrust their funds to a venture capital firm, but can also invest directly to better diversify their portfolio. The downside of this angel investor type is that they don’t provide any added value besides money, such as expertise or network of connections.

Super Angel Investor

The Super Angel Investor is an individual who has a proven track record of supporting and mentoring startups. They often have firsthand experience building successful companies within the same field and have strong personal industry contacts. They are highly invested in the success of their portfolio companies and are dedicated to providing valuable guidance and support to the entrepreneurs.

Just as so-called “passive angel investors”, a potential disadvantage of super angels can be a shortage of added value and lack of focus – simply because their interest is spread among a large number of portfolio startups.

The Industry Angel Investor

Angel investors that fall into this category are typically former chief operating officers who have an extensive background in one specific industry, like ecommerce for example. Because they spent a large portion of their career in a given vertical, these individuals can be capable of identifying opportunities that even a startup founder wasn’t able to see.

This angel type can validate the startup’s mission and vision to other potential investors, bring exceptional insights and advice, and valuable connections. On the other hand, they tend to be too proactive when it comes to the future direction of the business, which may be contradictory to the founder’s ideas.

Angel Investor Groups

From the perspective of a startup, angel investor groups are perceived as a single entity, led by a fund manager. Often, they create syndicates which allow for lower investment amounts per individual angel, but result in a more substantial financial support overall for the startup.

Such groups might have a more formal procedure for evaluating and choosing the startups they will support, so it might be harder for founders to obtain financing from them.

1.3. Why Consider Angel Investing?

Becoming an angel investor can offer a variety of advantages. However, it may not be suitable for all individuals. There are alternative options, such as investing in stock markets or partnering with a venture capital firm. Here are a few reasons why one may consider becoming an angel investor:

Potential for significant returns

One of the main benefits of angel investing is the potential for significant returns. Investing in early-stage startups can be a high-risk, high-reward endeavor. If the startup does succeed, angel investors may make significant financial returns, but also be part of a successful company, depending on their ownership stake.

Portfolio diversification

Supporting startups can be a way of diversifying your investments. Depending on the industry, startup investments are usually not tied to the stock market or other traditional investments which makes it a good opportunity for diversification. This can help to reduce overall portfolio risk and provide a more stable investment strategy.

Networking opportunities

As an angel investor, you have the opportunity to work with other successful entrepreneurs and investors from the industry. This can open doors for further business and investment opportunities and serve as a solid ground for sharing knowledge and learning something new.

Support promising ideas

Angel investing allows individuals to be a part of the early stages of a company and potentially be a part of its success story. Many well-known companies started small and it’s often those who believed in their potential from the beginning that helped them get there.

Opportunity to give back and make a positive change

Lastly, being an Angel Investor gives individuals the opportunity to share their knowledge and provide mentorship to entrepreneurs with big dreams. By providing both financial support and guidance, angels can help to bring innovative and impactful ideas to fruition and make a positive change in the industry.

These are just some of the advantages that come with angel investing. It’s important to consider what motivates you and what you hope to gain from your investments. Remember that angel investing has its pros and cons and that whether angel investing is profitable will depend on many factors.

2. Becoming an Angel Investor

2.1. How to Become an Angel Investor and What Are the Requirements?

As an angel investor, you can back a startup directly or join an established investment syndicate. Not everyone qualifies to be an angel investor, nor can everyone become one. Here are some prerequisites you need to consider before pursuing this path.

Get educated

To differentiate between good and bad investment prospects, it’s crucial to understand the industry, market trends, and investment basics. Network with other angel investors and seek their insights. Attend workshops and events to broaden your knowledge. Keep in mind that this is a continuous process, so it’s wise to incorporate educational practices into your routine.

The Angel Capital Association’s website is a good place to start, as it provides valuable educational resources for both prospective angels and experienced investors. You can also use this platform to get informed about key events where you can establish relationships with founders and investing professionals.

Decide what type of investor you are

Develop a strategy and determine your level of involvement and the amount you’re willing to contribute to a startup’s growth. If you prefer a more active role, you will need to continuously learn and stay up-to-date with industry trends and competition. It’s important to understand what type of an investor you want to be prior to investing so make sure to figure that out on time.

Think about the industries, startup stage, or location you will deal with, and define what portion of your net worth you’ll be willing to devote. 

Establish a good network

To invest directly in startups, you must have access to attractive opportunities. Building connections with startups, attending their events, or networking with other angel investors and fund managers can help you find these opportunities. If you lack these connections, consider joining an established investment syndicate or register on to get connected with founders and fund managers.

Do your own research

You need to be familiar with various evaluation methods and do your own due diligence. Research the company and its management team, assess the market potential, and evaluate the financial projections. 

Refer to the Section 3 of this guide that deals with investment opportunity evaluation in more detail. 

Get accredited

Becoming an accredited investor offers significant investment opportunities and potential returns. Accredited investors may access greater opportunities and be allowed to trade even the securities that are not registered with financial authorities. 

To meet the criteria for becoming an accredited angel investor, the individual must have a net worth of at least $1 million, or to have an income of at least $200,000 for the last two years ($300,000 with a spouse).

The reason for this restriction is to protect the investors by making sure they can handle potential losses, since angel investing is very risky. Additionally, the vast majority of startup fundraisers are only looking for support from accredited investors – simply because in that case they are exempt from filings with the SEC or state regulators.

Understand the risks

Angel investing is rewarding but also risky. Over half of angel investments result in partial or full loss of funds. Before starting, educate yourself and determine how much loss you’re willing to tolerate. Ensure that your risk tolerance aligns with the risks associated with angel investing, or it may not be the appropriate investment option for you.

2.2. How to Get Qualified as an Angel Investor and Become Accredited?

Before explaining how to become an accredited investor, understanding what it actually means is of great importance. An accredited investor is an individual or a business entity that is allowed to trade securities that may not be registered with financial authorities such as U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). They are entitled to this privileged access by satisfying one of the following requirements:

1. Minimum income

To become accredited based on income, an individual must have an annual income exceeding $200,000 or $300,000 for joint income with a spouse for the last 2 years. The individual should expect to earn the same in the current year. 

2. Net worth

To become accredited based on net worth, an individual must have a net worth exceeding $1M, either individually or jointly with their spouse, excluding the value of primary residence. The investor should provide evidence of other liabilities they hold in order to be accredited in this manner.

3. Holding a license

Individuals can also become accredited by proving they hold a Series 7, Series 65, or Series 82 license for investing. 

Requirements may vary by jurisdiction, and it’s advisable to consult with a financial advisor or attorney to ensure compliance with relevant regulations for your specific case.

2.3. What Is the Minimum Investment Amount for Angel Investors?

The investment amounts provided by angel investors vary and can range anywhere from a few thousand dollars to hundreds of thousands of dollars. It often depends on the stage and type of the startup they are considering investing in. However, the typical size of an angel investment is between $15,000 and $250,000. 

Many startups require a $50,000 minimum investment amount that angels can reach either individually or by pooling funds with other investors. This is a common practice and can help further diversify your portfolio and reduce the risks. If you are just starting, consider joining an established syndicate as it will allow you to invest small amounts of money and share valuable pieces of information with other experienced investors.

2.4. Start Your Journey as an Angel Investor: Where Do I Get Started?

If you’re wondering how to get started in angel investing, read the sections 2.2 and 2.3, and register on to be connected with promising startups. If you are more interested in investing as part of a group, join a syndicate to benefit from pooled funds and resources., in partnership with Civic, allows you to set up a KYC process to do some basic formal due diligence on your investors.

3. Identifying Investment Opportunities

3.1. What Stage and Industries Do Angel Investors Invest In?

Angel investors typically invest in early-stage companies, such as startups that are in their pre-seed funding stage or early growth phase and have not yet gone public. Early stage startups are often seeking their first or second round of funding to foster growth of their business idea.

According to research by the University of New Hampshire, 39% of angel investments in 2020 were directed towards businesses in the seed or startup stages. 

When it comes to sectors in which angel investments dominate, the same research has shown that 30% of investment deals were established in the Healthcare industry, followed by software development companies (23%). Other dominant industries include energy and clean technology (9%), financial and business-related services (9%), retail (8%), and biotechnology (6%). 

3.2. How to Find Investment Opportunities (Deal Sourcing)

Angel investors discover investment opportunities through different channels. Many angels who invest in startups have a specific way of finding deals and are frequently approached directly by founders. If you’re new to angel investing and are seeking startups to invest in, you may want to explore the following channels:

Incubators and Accelerators

Incubators and accelerators often bring early-stage startups and investors together, providing a platform for them to connect and evaluate investment opportunities.

Conferences and Events

Conferences, meetups, and other events focused on startups and entrepreneurship provide opportunities for angel investors to network with entrepreneurs and learn about new investment opportunities. The examples of such events include ACA Summit hosted by the Angel Capital Association, Angel Venture Fair Conference, or San Diego Angel Conference

Online platforms

There are numerous online platforms connecting startups with investors. You can also explore platforms dedicated solely to startups and entrepreneurs, and find ideas that align with your investment preferences. Consider registering as an Angel Investor on to receive tailored investment opportunities that suit your interests.

Personal contacts

Having the right connections is crucial for angel investors. Focus on expanding your network and keep in close contact with entrepreneurs and other investors regularly. Do not underestimate the importance of your current connections, such as friends, family, and business associates. They may be able to introduce you to potential opportunities or even launch a startup themselves.

Direct outreach 

Founders may also reach out to angel investors directly to pitch their ideas. Ensure you are visible online (e.g. create a LinkedIn account) and attend in-person events. Once you establish a reputation as an angel investor, startups and individuals seeking funds will approach you directly and you will no longer struggle to find investing opportunities.

3.3. How to Evaluate Investment Opportunities 

Angel investors are able to assess investment opportunities by conducting due diligence, which entails a thorough examination of an investment’s potential for success. Here’s your due diligence checklist and the the key aspects you need to focus on:

Team: An evaluation of the founding team and key employees’ experience, expertise, and track record.

Market: An assessment of the market’s size, growth potential, and customer demand where the investment operates.

Product: An evaluation of the product’s value proposition, including its uniqueness, ability to solve a real problem, and how it differentiates itself from competitors.

Traction: Evidence of customer adoption, such as paying customers, revenues, and growth.

Finances: Examining the company’s financial projections, including revenue, expenses, and cash flow, to assess its financial health and strategy.

Legal and Tax: Evaluating the legal and regulatory environment in which the investment operates and taking into account the tax implications.

Alignment: An assessment of the vision and values alignment between the angel investor and the founding team.

Exit Strategy: Determining the investment’s potential for a successful exit, such as an IPO or acquisition, to realize a return on investment.

Through conducting these analyses, angel investors can make informed investment decisions, identify potential risks or issues, and avoid unintended consequences. It should be noted that the specific analyses used may vary depending on the investment and the investor’s goals and preferences.

Preference Sheet

Once you establish your preferred channels of deal flow, you can create a simple preference sheet that contains a set of criteria that need to be met in order to proceed with the investment. It can look similar to the following example:

Vertical or industryXDoes the startup operate within your preferred industries?
Estimation of money and time investedXIs the amount required by the startup realistic for your circumstances as an individual angel or syndicate member? What level of involvement is required?
Startup formation phase and the teamXIs the current stage of a business in line with your preferences? How developed is the top management? Is there sufficient expertise? What is the company’s legal structure as an entity?
Product or service maturityXWhat is the current stage of the product development? (Idea, MVP, Beta) Does it fit your preferences?
Business model, revenue, and profitsXIs the company’s business model and growth projections in line with your criteria?
Development time spanXIs the projected time horizon to enter the market, generate revenue and exit in accordance with your preferences?

Other evaluation criteria include startup’s location and possible compensations. The latter is important in case the angel investor is actively involved in the startup’s operations, acting as a member of the board. 

4. Angel Investing Process

4.1. The Stages of Angel Investment

Angel investment can be a long journey with many stages, as it typically involves a longer-term perspective and a focus on helping a company grow and succeed over a period of several years. Some angel investments may have a shorter duration if the company is acquired or goes public sooner than expected. However, all angel investors will go through the following stages:

1. Identifying potential investment opportunities and conducting due diligence

Angel investors seek investment opportunities through various channels. Most of them have an established way of identifying potential prospects, and after thoroughly researching through due diligence, they determine the prospects’ success potential. Refer to section 3 of this guide for more detailed guidelines.

2. Negotiating the terms

Once the potential investment has been identified, angel investors negotiate the terms of the deal with the founders. It involves discussing the amount of investment, the valuation of the company, and the type of equity or debt being offered. Read Section 4.2 for more details.

3. Closing a deal

Once the terms have been agreed upon, the angel and the company will sign a formal investment agreement, and the angel will provide the funds (investment capital). 

4. Monitoring

Angel investors typically maintain involvement with the firm after making an investment. Depending on the type of angel investor, they may provide guidance, act as a mentor, and offer additional support, such as making introductions to potential customers or investors. This enables the investors to closely monitor the investment’s performance and make informed decisions regarding future actions.

5. Exit

Angel investors usually have a long-term perspective, but they will eventually want to sell their share in order to obtain a return on their investment. This process is called an “exit”, and the goal is to maximize the return and provide liquidity for the angel investor. There are different exit strategies and methods. Read more about it in Section 5.

4.2. Angel Investor’s Term Sheet

The term sheet (also commonly referred to as a letter of intent) is a non-legal document that represents the statement of investment terms and conditions. It can be created by an angel investor or the startup itself. 

Term sheet should cover the following key details:

The structure of the investment

This section of the term sheet defines which security the angel investor will use when financing. In many cases, angels invest using one of the three types of securities: common shares, convertible shares, or convertible debt. 

In common share investments, shares are distributed at a price agreed between the investor and the startup. Thus, the valuation is being determined prior to the investment. Angel investors will have the same rights as founders or employees.

On the other hand, convertible shares include a liquidation preference over common shares. This means that angel investors will have an advantage over common shareholders when selling shares. The value of common shares usually matches the original investment amount. 

The third type of security, convertible debt, is practically a loan issued to startup companies. The convertible debt can be converted into startup equity shares. The main benefit of this approach is that both parties can postpone the startup valuation until the next funding round. After the round is complete, the debt converts into startup’s equity shares. 

Economic Details

The term sheet also defines economic terms, ie. preferred return on the investment and accruing earnings generated from the investment. 

Preferred return is an amount that the invested company has to provide to the angel investor before making payments to other stakeholders. Accruing returns, on the other hand, can either be in the form of dividends on equity shares, or an interest accrued through convertible debt. 

Instead of being paid in cash, this interest is usually converted into equity. Common interest rates range between 5% and 12%. 

Board Appointment and Reporting

Sometimes angel investors become members of the startup’s board of directors, but in most cases they take the role of an observer or advisor. Also, reporting procedures to the angel investor are established. 

This is especially the case if the angel provides more value to the company than just providing financial support. 

Shareholder Agreement 

Another important point in the term sheet is a shareholder agreement between the angel and the founder(s). This defines a legal relationship among the parties, and addresses matters such as rights for transfer of the shares, voting rights for selecting board members, and so on. 

Closing Conditions

Every term sheet should also define the time span and procedures from the day of signing the document to the closing date. This includes due diligence, closing conditions, and confidentiality obligations. 

Here are the most common aspects covered in a term sheet besides the ones explained above: 

  • Startup and investor details
  • Pre-investment valuation
  • Types and percentage of shares distributed
  • Cap table
  • Dilution terms and effects
  • Dividends (optional)

Depending on the nature of the deal, certain aspects can be disregarded while others may need to be incorporated. For instance, if the investor is providing supplementary advisory services, it is imperative to outline them with lucid key performance indicators (KPIs).

Numerous excellent templates for such documents are available online, and in some cases, angel investors may have their own unique templates. As a founder, don’t hesitate to collaborate on these templates with your first angel investor. However, to streamline your work in the future, it is recommended to stick to one standard format for all subsequent investors.

4.3. Building a Portfolio (Diversification, Strategies)

Since investing in startups is substantially riskier than investing in public companies, angel investors need to create a strategy for minimizing risk. 

In contrast to public companies, startups usually have little traction, a small number of customers, and no financial or performance history. That’s why it’s crucial for Angels to diversify their portfolio in the best possible manner. In other words, build your investments across a number of different startups. 

A general rule is that as an angel investor shouldn’t put more than 10% of their net worth in such early stage companies. Also, in the initial phases, the angel needs to have a portfolio of about 15-20 deals – consisting of companies that he or she believes could have a breakthrough product or a service, and potentially generate optimal returns. 

Since there is no data on the startup successes until exit, one should carefully examine the characteristics of a business. Before deciding on the potential investment, ask yourself the following: 

  • How good is the team of founders? 
  • Are they proactive in driving growth? 
  • Do they treat angel investors properly and with respect?
  • Do they have what it takes to face and resolve challenges?

It’s important to keep in mind that having too many deals can also have its downsides. Given the unique nature of each angel investment and the potentially high degree of involvement required from you, it’s crucial to consider not only the capital involved but also the time you’ll be spending with these companies, particularly if you have a full-time commitment elsewhere.

To access new deals and boost your value as an angel investor while increasing the chances of success for your portfolio companies, it’s essential to utilize your network and constantly expand it. By doing so, you can remain connected with new opportunities and provide valuable support to your portfolio companies.

5. Post – Investment Governance

5.1.Involvement in the Startup’s Development After Investment

We’ve already mentioned that in some cases angel investors take a seat in the board of directors and acquire a certain level of control in the company. They may be involved in developing a business plan, financial projections, or even in a company’s operations. Thus, angels need to be extremely familiar with a given industry or vertical, and have entrepreneurial skills, besides being able to identify potential ground-breaking opportunities. 

Having a well-established network of connections is a key trait of an ideal angel investor. Their role extends beyond providing financing, as they also provide credibility to startups.

Research conducted a few years ago in 21 countries demonstrated the crucial role angel investors play in the performance, growth, and survival of early-stage businesses. Startups backed by angels have a 14% greater chance of surviving for at least 18 months after receiving funding, compared to those without angel investing support. Moreover, angel backing increases the likelihood of a successful exit by 10% to 17%.

Therefore, in an optimal scenario, an angel investor should offer additional value by facilitating connections between the business and venture capitalists, investment banks, strategic partners, customers, employees, legal and accounting professionals. This support can be instrumental in driving the success and growth of a startup.

5.2. Collecting Returns, Equity and Exit Strategies

In general, successful angels first look at the projected time span for the return on investment (ROI). They usually hold the investment for three to five years, and cash out (generate profit) after this period ends. 

Some of the common exit scenarios include Initial Public Offering, selling the company to a competitor, or buying the shares by some venture capital fund. 

So, what are the most common exit strategies for angels?

Early Exit

If you’re going for a so-called “early-exit” strategy, focus on companies that meet the following criteria: 

  • The startup has developed a disruptive product or service that can potentially take over the market share of a larger, well-established competitor
  • The product or service is patented, and a potential buyer will not risk having it copied by competitors
  • The product or service is undeniably constrained by limitations of the sales force, and would be immediately profitable if the sales force is large and capable enough
  • The company has developed a highly innovative business model or technology that fills the gap in the market

However, this strategy is optional in most cases, as an alternative “best case” scenario.

Milestone-Based Exit

This strategy entails providing investing money in segments, and usually makes the angel investor become more involved in the company’s operations and growth strategies.

After each milestone is achieved, the investor provides the next round of financing. This gives angels greater flexibility and ability to exit in case the company fails to achieve the next milestone. 

In this scenario, significant returns can be expected over a longer period of time, sometimes even more than ten years. 

Multiple-Exit Strategy

This strategy is often implemented by angels who have multiple companies in their portfolio. The angel investor creates a strategic plan that outlines when they exit different deals to spread out the risk-to-reward ratio. Since the angel will not exit all the startups at once, and each startup can be in a different phase of development, this strategy requires a lot of organization and planning. 

All in all, implementing the right exit strategy will help you define the criteria for investment success. According to studies, a well-established portfolio coupled with a proper exit strategy can generate a return of a little bit less than 30% on an annual basis. 

6. Risks & Rewards

6.1. Potential Risks Associated With Angel Investing

Investing in early-stage companies can be a lucrative investment strategy, but it also comes with several risks. Some of the investment risks associated with angel investing include:

1. High risk of failure: The majority of early-stage companies do not succeed, so angel investors should expect that many of their investments will not provide a return.

2. Lack of liquidity: Angel investments are often illiquid, meaning that investors may not be able to sell their shares for a significant period of time or at all.

3. Lack of control: Angel investors often have limited control over the management of the company they invest in, which can lead to conflicts with top managers and other shareholders.

4. Lack of diversification: Investing in early-stage companies is inherently risky, and angel investors may have a portfolio that is not sufficiently diversified, which can amplify the risk.

5. Difficulty in valuing investments: Valuing early-stage companies can be challenging as early-stage companies often lack a track record or tangible financial history. For that reason investors may not be able to accurately assess the value of their investments.

6. Scams and fraud: There is always a risk of investing in a fraudulent scheme or scam, especially when investing in early-stage companies with little track record.

Overall, angel investing can be a high-risk, high-reward investment strategy. Investors should always make sure that the investment fits their risk tolerance and carefully evaluate all the potential risks and benefits.

6.2. Potential Rewards of Successful Angel Investments

As highlighted in Section 1.3. Why Consider Angel Investing?, there are many potential rewards of angel investments.

The potential return from a successful angel investment can vary widely depending on the specific investment, the industry, and the stage of the company. However, if the invested company is successful and experiences significant growth, the returns can be substantial.

Angel investors typically receive equity in the company in exchange for their investment. If the company goes public or is acquired by another company, the investor may receive a return on their investment in the form of capital gains. The return on investment can be multiple times the initial investment, depending on the valuation of the company at the time of the exit.

For example, an angel investor who invests $50,000 in a company that later goes public and is valued at $100 million could potentially see a return on investment of several hundred thousand or even millions of dollars. 

Overall, the potential return from a successful angel investment can be significant, but it comes with high risk and requires careful consideration and due diligence.

7. Legal & Tax Implications

7.1. Explanation of the Tax Implications of Angel Investing

Becoming an angel investor and supporting startups with capital can have various tax implications, which depend on a variety of factors. Here are some of the common angel tax implications:

1. Capital Gains Tax: If you invest in a startup and then sell your shares at a profit, you will be subject to capital gains tax. The amount of tax you owe will depend on how long you held the shares and your income tax bracket.

Under Section 1202 of the Internal Revenue Code, certain investors in qualifying small businesses may be able to exclude a portion of their capital gains from taxation. However, this provision has specific requirements that must be met in order to qualify.

2. Losses: If the startup you invested in fails, you may be able to claim a tax deduction for the loss. However, the amount of the deduction may be limited by various factors, such as your income level and the amount of the loss.

If you invest in a startup as a passive investor, you may not be able to deduct any losses on your tax return. This is because passive losses can only be deducted against passive income.

3. State and Local Taxes: Depending on where you live, you may also be subject to state and local taxes on your angel investment.

It is important to consult with a tax professional to understand the specific tax implications of your angel investing activities, as the rules can be complex and vary depending on your individual circumstances.

Angel investors that use platform receive comprehensive tax administration support. 

7.2. Explanation of the Legal Implications of Angel Investing

Like any investment, there are legal implications associated with angel investing. It is important to check all the legal requirements before making an investment.

These are some things to take into account:

1. Contractual Agreements: Angel investors typically enter into contractual agreements with the startup they invest in. These agreements may include provisions related to ownership, voting rights, exit strategies, and confidentiality. It is important for investors to ensure that these agreements are legally sound and enforceable. 

2. Due Diligence: Angel investors must conduct due diligence to ensure that the startup they are investing in has a viable business plan and is in compliance with all applicable laws and regulations.

3. Securities Laws: In many countries, the sale of securities is regulated by law, and angel investments may be considered securities. Therefore, angel investors need to comply with the relevant laws and regulations to avoid legal consequences.

Overall, angel investing can have significant legal implications, and investors should consult with legal and financial professionals before making any investment decisions.

Additional Considerations

Angel investors should request incorporation documents from founders in order to confirm the legal entity structure of the startup (whether it’s an LLC, a partnership, or a corporation, etc.). 

Besides verifying the actual formal existence of the company, this can help determine the way a company’s equity holdings are structured, particular tax implications, as well as which investment instrument will be used (debt or equity, see Section 4.2).

As startup companies typically operate in the realm of technology and innovation, it is crucial for an angel investor to have a good understanding of intellectual property rights. This includes tangible and intangible assets as well as technical expertise. By ensuring that the invested company owns all the necessary intellectual property rights, the investor can be assured that there are no infringements.

Moreover, it is essential that the contractual provisions of the deal contain details regarding dilution protection. This is done to restrict the possibility of reducing an investor’s stake in the company if it issues new equity shares to third parties.

For instance, if an angel investor’s stake is at 15% just before the company proceeds to its next funding round, the company should prioritize offering shares at a discounted rate to the investor. This approach helps to prevent the dilution of the investor’s equity ownership. By including these provisions, the investor can rest assured that their stake in the company is protected, and their potential returns remain intact.

Another intriguing consideration arises when angel investors hold a seat on a company’s board of directors. Suppose the company encounters legal troubles and includes the investor’s name on their website or presentation materials. This action could harm the investor’s reputation and even result in a lawsuit. Therefore, it is crucial for the investor to ensure that the company is obligated to safeguard their interests.

As a registered angel investor on platform, you have the option to receive comprehensive legal advisory support.

8. Guide to Web3 Angel Investing

8.1. How to start a web3 Angel Investment (Key Steps and Phases)

Although Web3 angel investing shares similarities with traditional investing, it also has its own unique characteristics. One significant difference is the elevated role of founders in the process. As a successful founder yourself, your network and expertise can make all the difference for an up-and-coming entrepreneur.

Leveraging your existing connections can not only be advantageous for the newcomer but also provide an opportunity to expand your own network. Additionally, supporting other projects can broaden your perspective and lead to better decisions for your own company.

However, if you are seeking to invest capital but lack a strong network, gaining access to investment opportunities can prove challenging. Even if you do manage to find a way into the deal flow, founders may be hesitant to work with you if they don’t see the added value your investment could bring. Joining or starting a Web3 investment syndicate could be a beneficial option, allowing you to contribute greater amounts of capital and potentially gain access to more opportunities.

8.2. Web3 Investment Rounds

Investment rounds for Web3 projects differ from those of traditional projects. While there is a growing trend toward equity rounds, most investment rounds still involve a significant token component. As an investor, it’s crucial to familiarize yourself with tokenomics and other factors that can impact the success of your investment. Gathering all the necessary information for an informed decision can be a daunting task, so it’s essential to be extra careful in your analysis.

While you could limit yourself to equity rounds, they are relatively rare in the Web3 space. Companies that rely solely on equity may face challenges in their growth, as subsequent investors may pressure them to introduce a token. If this happens, your equity may not appreciate as much in value. Token warrants are also becoming more popular, offering investors a share of any tokens created in the future. This option can provide some security for investors who are hesitant about the token component of investment rounds.

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